russian verb conjugations

 

Let's have a look at the different verb endings, depending on what tense the verb is in.

In order to identify the correct verb ending, you need to know conjugations of Russian verbs.

There are 2 conjugations - the 1st conjugation and the 2nd conjugation.

 

Verb Conjugations

1st conjugation:

  • Verbs ending in АТЬ, ЕТЬ, ОТЬ, УТЬ, ЫТЬ, ЯТЬ
  • A few verbs exceptions ending in ИТЬ

These exceptions are:

брить, стелить, пить, жить

2nd conjugation:

  • Verbs ending in ИТЬ
  • 7 verbs ending in ЕТЬ and 4 verbs ending in AТЬ

These exceptions are:

ЕТЬ: вертеть, видеть, зависеть, ненавидеть, обидеть, смотреть, терпеть

AТЬ: держать, дышать, гнать, слышать

 

Present Tense Verb Conjugations

Present tense verb formation:

  1. Determine the conjugation of the verb (1st or 2nd) by looking at the infinitive form.
  2. Determine the stem of the verb. Drop -ТЬ from the infinitive form for 1st conjugation verbs and drop -ИТЬ for 2nd conjugation verbs.
  3. Add the right ending depending on the person and conjugation.

Please note that there are many verbs that will not follow this rule and you will have to remember their stem by looking up their conjugations.

Some exceptions:

  • ЛЮБИТЬ (to love) - stem ЛЮБ(Л)
  • ПИСАТЬ (to write) - stem ПИШ
  • РЕЗАТЬ (to cut) - stem РЕЖ

 

Present Tense - Verb Endings

PERSON PRONOUN 1st conjugation 2nd conjugation
1st singular Я Ю
У (after consonants)
Ю
У (after Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ)
2nd singular ТЫ ЕШЬ
ЁШЬ (under stress)
ИШЬ
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО ЕТ
ЁТ (under stress)
ИТ
1st plural МЫ ЕМ
ЁМ (under stress)
ИМ
2nd plural ВЫ ЕТЕ
ЁТЕ (under stress)
ИТЕ
3rd plural ОНИ ЮТ
УТ (after consonants)
ЯТ
АТ (after Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ)

 

Present Tense Verb Conjugations - БРОСАТЬ, ВЕРИТЬ

  • БРОСАТЬ (to throw) - 1st conjugation - drop ТЬ - stem БРОСА
  • ВЕРИТЬ (to believe) - 2nd conjugation - drop ИТЬ - stem ВЕР
PERSON PRONOUN 1st conjugation 2nd conjugation
1st singular Я БРОСАЮ ВЕРЮ
2nd singular ТЫ БРОСАЕШЬ ВЕРИШЬ
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО БРОСАЕТ ВЕРИТ
1st plural МЫ БРОСАЕМ ВЕРИМ
2nd plural ВЫ БРОСАЕТЕ ВЕРИТЕ
3rd plural ОНИ БРОСАЮТ ВЕРЯТ

 

Past Tense Verb Conjugations

Past tense verb formation:

  1. Determine the stem of the verb.
  2. Drop the ending -ТЬ from the infinitive form.
  3. Add the right ending depending on gender: for masculine, -ЛА for feminine, -ЛО for neuter, -ЛИ for plural.

Please note that there are many verbs that will not follow this rule and you will have to remember their stem by looking up their conjugations.

Some exceptions:

ИДТИ (to go)

    • Masculine: ШЁЛ
    • Feminine: ШЛА
    • Neuter: ШЛО
    • Plural: ШЛИ

МОЧЬ (to be able to)

    • Masculine: МОГ
    • Feminine: МОГЛА
    • Neuter: МОГЛО
    • Plural: МОГЛИ

 

Past Tense - Verb Endings

Gender Singular Plural
MASCULINE Л ЛИ
FEMININE ЛА
NEUTER ЛО

 

Past Tense Verb Conjugations - ИГРАТЬ

  • ИГРАТЬ (to play) - drop -ТЬ - stem ИГРА
Gender Singular Plural
MASCULINE ИГРАЛ ИГРАЛИ
FEMININE ИГРАЛА
NEUTER ИГРАЛО

 

Future Tense Verb Conjugations

Imperfective verbs

Future tense formation for imperfective verbs:

  • Relevant form of the auxiliary verb БЫТЬ (to be) followed by the infinitive form of the imperfective verb.

 

Future Tense Imperfective - Verb Endings

PERSON PRONOUN FUTURE Быть + Imperfective Infinitive
1st singular Я БУДУ + imp inf
2nd singular ТЫ БУДЕШЬ + imp inf
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО БУДЕТ + imp inf
1st plural МЫ БУДЕМ + imp inf
2nd plural ВЫ БУДЕТЕ + imp inf
3rd plural ОНИ БУДУТ + imp inf

 

Future Tense Imperfective Verb Conjugations - РАБОТАТЬ

Let's have a look at an example with the verb РАБОТАТЬ (to work)

PERSON PRONOUN FUTURE Быть + Imperfective Infinitive
1st singular Я БУДУ РАБОТАТЬ
2nd singular ТЫ БУДЕШЬ РАБОТАТЬ
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО БУДЕТ РАБОТАТЬ
1st plural МЫ БУДЕМ РАБОТАТЬ
2nd plural ВЫ БУДЕТЕ РАБОТАТЬ
3rd plural ОНИ БУДУТ РАБОТАТЬ

 

Perfective verbs

Future tense formation for perfective verbs:

  1. Determine the conjugation of the verb (1st or 2nd) by looking at the infinitive form.
  2. Determine the stem of the verb. Drop -ТЬ from the infinitive form for 1st conjugation verbs and drop -ИТЬ for 2nd conjugation verbs.
  3. Add the right ending depending on the person and conjugation.

The steps to identifying the right ending of a verb are the same as present tense and the endings are the same as well.

 

Future Tense Perfective - Verb Endings

PERSON PRONOUN 1st conjugation 2nd conjugation
1st singular Я Ю
У (after consonants)
Ю
У (after Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ)
2nd singular ТЫ ЕШЬ
ЁШЬ (under stress)
ИШЬ
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО ЕТ
ЁТ (under stress)
ИТ
1st plural МЫ ЕМ
ЁМ (under stress)
ИМ
2nd plural ВЫ ЕТЕ
ЁТЕ (under stress)
ИТЕ
3rd plural ОНИ ЮТ
УТ (after consonants)
ЯТ
АТ (after Ж, Ч, Ш, Щ)

 

Future Tense Perfective Verb Conjugations - СДЕЛАТЬ, ПОСТРОИТЬ

  • СДЕЛАТЬ (to do) - 1st conjugation - drop ТЬ - stem СДЕЛА
  • ПОСТРОИТЬ (to build) - 2nd conjugation - drop ИТЬ - stem ПОСТРО
PERSON PRONOUN 1st conjugation 2nd conjugation
1st singular Я СДЕЛАЮ ПОСТРОЮ
2nd singular ТЫ СДЕЛАЕШЬ ПОСТРОИШЬ
3rd singular ОН, ОНА, ОНО СДЕЛАЕТ ПОСТРОИТ
1st plural МЫ СДЕЛАЕМ ПОСТРОИМ
2nd plural ВЫ СДЕЛАЕТЕ ПОСТРОИТЕ
3rd plural ОНИ СДЕЛАЮТ ПОСТРОЯТ

 

Want to learn more about Russian verbs?

Check out these lessons:

Russian Verb Aspects
Russian Verb Tenses

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *