Cases of Russian Nouns

 

What is the definition of a case? A case is the form of a noun that represents its grammatical function within a sentence.

Cases not only affect nouns, but also other parts of speech in Russian - pronouns, adjectives, numerals.

Depending on the case, a certain noun will have different endings. Sometimes, even the stem of the word will change.

There are 6 cases in the Russian language - Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Instrumental, and Prepositional.

Each case has a singular and plural form. This means that a noun will have 12 different forms - 6 singular forms and 6 plural forms.

 

6 Cases in the Russian language

 

Nominative case- indicating the subject of a clause

It answers questions: Who? What?

Мальчик смотрит телевизор. The boy is watching TV.

Моя машина сломалась. My car broke down.

 

Genitive case- indicating possession, origin or relation

It answers questions: Of whom? Whose? Of what? Where from?

Это ресторан моих друзей. This is my friends' restaurant.

Я только что вернулся из Европы. I just came back from Europe.

 

Dative case- indicating the indirect object of a verb, its recipient

It answers questions: To whom? To what?

Это книга принадлежит библиотеке. This book belongs to the library.

Передавай маме привет от меня. Tell your mom I said hello.

 

Accusative case - indicating the direct object of a verb

It answers questions: I see whom? What?

Я видел Питера вчера на автобусной остановке. I saw Peter yesterday at the bus stop.

Он смотрит футбол по телевизору. He is watching football on TV.

 

Instrumental case- indicating means by which

It answers questoins: With whom? With what? By which means?

Мне нравится пить чай с молоком. I like drinking tea with milk.

Я иду в кинотеатр с моим другом. I'm going to the cinema with my friend.

 

Prepositional case- used to designate a location and is always used with a preposition.

It answers questions: About whom? About what? Where?

Он ждёт тебя в офисе. He is waiting for you in the office.

Фильм о любви и отношениях. The movie is about love and relationships.

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